Found:  34 Items


Business associate who shares equity in a firm.


Shared ownership among two or more individuals, some of whom may, but do not necessarily, have limited liability with respect to obligations of the group.

Passive Bond

A bond without any interest yield.

Passive Management

A money management approach where the investor does not actively look for trading possibilities and therefore does not attempt to outperform the market. Opposite of active management.

Payment System

The system used to achieve settlement of the cash (funds) side of a securities transaction.

PE Ratio

(see Price Earnings Ratio)

Pension Fund

A fund that is set up to pay pension benefits to retired employees of a corporation, government entity, or to other organizations.


Absolute performance is quoted as the percentage movement in the value of the shares or units in a fund from one period to the next. It is usually presented in a percentage format on either an absolute return basis or an annualised return basis. Performance may also be judged on a relative basis against a benchmark.

Performance Attribution Analysis

The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain the reasons why those results were achieved. Indicates the major sources of added value.

Performance Evaluation

The assessment of a manager's results, which involves, first, determining whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return (performance attribution analysis).

Performance Fund

A mutual fund whose goal is to achieve maximum growth of capital--sometimes called ‘aggressive growth funds’. The fund invests in companies that are in high growth cycles.

Performance Measurement

Calculation of the return a money manager realizes over some time interval.

Performance Measurement

The process of developing measurable indicators that can be systematically tracked to assess progress made in achieving predetermined objectives and using such indicators to assess progress in achieving these objectives. Performance measurement is an assessment of an organization's performance, including measures of productivity, effectiveness, quality, and timeliness.

Personal Equity Plan

PEPs, or Personal Equity Plans, were first available on 1st January 1987. PEPs ceased to be available for new investment in April 1999. Existing investors can continue to hold their plans and are free to transfer between plan managers.

Physical Securities

Securities where ownership is represented by paper certificates.


The combined holding of more than one stock, bond, commodity, real estate investment, or other assets. Good portfolios have an objective and the selection of investments is designed to achieve it.

Portfolio Composition

A percentage breakdown of securities holdings in several specified categories.

Portfolio Diversification

Investing in different asset classes and in securities of many issuers in an attempt to reduce overall investment risk and to avoid damaging a portfolio's performance by the poor performance of a single security, industry, (or country).

Portfolio Management

The process of managing the assets of a mutual fund, including choosing and monitoring appropriate investments and allocating funds accordingly.

Portfolio Manager

Professional responsible for the securities portfolio of an individual or institutional investor. Also called a ‘money manager’ or, especially when personalized service is involved, an ‘investment counsel’.

Portfolio Modelling

The process of modelling portfolios against each other or against a benchmark portfolio or index.

Post-Implementation Review (PIR)

An evaluation tool that compares the conditions prior to the implementation of a project (as identified in the business case) with the actual results achieved by the project.

Preference Shares

A class of share capital which receives a fixed rate of return, and comes ahead of ordinary shares in order of priority in a winding up. A share's price is divided by its last published earnings.

Premium Bond

A bond that is valued at more than its face amount.

Price Earnings Ratio

A term used in investment analysis for the relationship between market value of share capital and the profit for the year.

Prime Broker

A settlement agent facilitating the settlement of cash transactions. Provides custody of assets and handles any corporate actions arising on the portfolio.


The total amount of money being borrowed or lent. Also, the party affected by agent decisions in a principal-agent relationship.

Private Banking

Beyond just providing credit or managing investments, private banking addresses one’s entire financial situation. Services include everything from protecting and growing assets in the present to planning retirement and passing on wealth to future generations.

Private Equity

Equity capital available to companies or investors but not quoted on a stock market. The funds raised through private equity can be used to develop new products and technologies, to expand working capital, to make acquisitions, or to strengthen a company’s balance sheet. Also, Equity capital invested in a private company.

Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE)

A transaction in which accredited investors are allowed to purchase stock in a public company, usually below the market price. The stock is registered with the SEC so that it may later be resold to the public.

Profit and Loss Statement

Profit and loss statement is the report of a company's performance to determine it's profitability over a specific period of time.

Profit Margin

The ratio including annual net earnings after taxes divided by revenues, usually displayed as a percentage.

Program Trading

Computerized trading used primarily by institutional investors, typically for large volume trades, where orders from the trader's computer are entered directly into the market's computer system and executed automatically.


A document required by law to be published on the occasion of an issue of shares or fixed interest securities to the public. A prospectus gives details of the company and the issue. In the case of listed investments, stock exchanges usually require the publication of more information than the legal minimum obligation. It is a useful document for prospective investors.